Key References

1.  Recommendation by government agency to start screening at age 50

A.  U.S. Preventative Services Task Force:  “Draft Recommendation Statement:  Breast Cancer Screening.” 2015.

B.  Explanation of how new legislation would give insurance companies the right to deny payment for mammograms for women under 50.

2.  Task force Guidelines are base on Cost-containment:

3.    The one study that concludes mammograms don’t save lives: (only “randomized”   study that has come to this conclusion)..”The first Canadian study:

  • Miller A.B., Wall C., Baines C. et. al. “Twenty-Five Year Follow-up for Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality of the Canadian National Breast Screening Study: Randomized Screening Trial,” British Medical J 348     

             (February 2014): g366.

4.  Critiques of the First Canadian study:

  • Kopans D.B.  “The Most Recent Breast Cancer Screening Controversy About Whether Mammographic Screening Benefits Women at Any Age: Nonsense and  Nonscience,” AJR 180 (January 2003): 21-26.
  • Boyd N.F., Jung R.A., Yaffe A.J. et. al.  “A critical Appraisal of the Canadian National Breast Cancer Study,” Radiology 189 (January 1994): 661-663.
  • Boyd N.F. “The Review of Randomization in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study: Is the Debate Over?” Canadian Medical Association 156 (1977): 207-209.
  • Weiss, M. “Garbage In, Garbage Out: A Flawed Study Cannot Measure the Value of Mammograms.”  Huffington Post April 2014.
  • Heywang-Köbrunner S. H., SchreerI., Hacker A. et. al. “Conclusions for mammography screening after 25-year follow-up of the Canadian National Breast Cancer Screening Study (CNBSS).” Eur Radiol 26 (2016):342–350.

5.  Studies proving the effectiveness of starting mammographic screening at age 40 (two key studies out a long list of studies)

  • Tabár L., Vitak, B., Chen T.H.  et. al. “Swedish Two-County Trial: Impact Mammographic Screening on Breast Cancer Mortality During 3 Decades,” Radiology 260 (September 2011): 658-663.
  • Coldman A., Phillips N., Wilson C. et. al. “Pan-Canadian Study of Mammography Screening and Mortality From Breast Cancer,” Natl Cancer Inst 106 (July 2014):1-7.     (Second Canadian Study)

6.  New technology that can reduce breast cancer mortality

  • Schattner E.  “Automated Ultrasound Can Improve Breast Cancer Detection In Women With Dense Breasts.”  Forbes/ Pharma& Healthcare.  April 2015.
  • Friedewald S. M., Rafferty E. A., Rose S.L.  “Breast Cancer Screening Using Tomosynthesis in Combination With Digital Mammography,”JAMA311(2014): 2499-2507.
  •  Kelly M.K., Dean J., Coumlada W.S. et. al.  “Breast Cancer Detection Using Automated Whole Breast Ultrasound and Mammography in Radiographically Dense Breasts,” EurRadiol 20 (March 2010): 734-742.
  • Berg W. A.,Zhang Z.,Lehrer D, Jong R.A. “Detection of Breast Cancer With Addition of Annual Screening Ultrasound or a Single Screening MRI to Mammography in Women With Elevated Breast Cancer Risk”

7.  Organization that advises starting screening mammography at age 40

·Also see: National Comprehensive Cancer Network.  “For Breast Cancer, When to Screen or Not to Screen? That is the Question Plaguing the Minds of U.S. Women—and Their Clinicians.” April 2016.

8:  Screening women at increased risk of developing breast cancer:

9.  Evidence that breast cancer is in large part a disease of young women: